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Community Based Sanctions


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  • Berman, G. Rempel, M. and Wolf, R. (2007) Documenting Realities: Research on Problem-Solving Justice. A Collection from the Center for Court Innovation. New York: Centre for Court Innovation.
  • Berman, G. Rempel, M. and Wolf, R. (2004) A Problem Solving Revolution: Making Change Happen in State Courts. New York: Centre for Court Innovation.
  • Bottoms, A. (2004) Alternatives to Prison: Options for an Insecure Society. Collumpton: Willan
  • Bottoms, A., Geltsthorpe, L. & Rex, S. (2002) Community Penalties: Changes and Challenges, Willan
  • Council of Europe. (2003) Recommendation Rec(2003)22 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on conditional release (parole).
  • Davies, P. and Gailey, Y. (2005) Risk and Need in Offender Populations in Ireland, Dublin: Probation and Welfare Service.
  • Esmée Fairbairn Foundation (2004) Rethinking Crime and Punishment: The Report. London: Esmée Fairbairn Foundation. (PDF, 1.86 MB)
  • Gibbs, A. (2002) "Alternatives to Custody in the New Zealand Criminal Justice System: Current Features and Future Prospects", Social Policy and Administration, 36/4, 392-407
  • Hart, I. (1974). Factors relating to Reconviction among young Dublin probationers. Dublin. Economic and Social Research Institute.
  • Joint Committee on Justice, Equality, Defence and Women’s Rights. (2000) Report of the Sub-Committee on Crime and Punishment of the Joint Committee on Justice, Equality, Defence and Women’s Rights on Alternatives to Fines and the Uses of Prison. Dublin: Houses of the Oireachtas.
  • Kilcommins, S. (2000) "Cultural Determinates and Penal Practices: an Analysis of the Introduction of Community Service Orders", Mountbatten Journal of Legal Studies, 4, 20-54
  • The Law Reform Commission. (2005) Report, The Court Poor Box: Probation of Offenders (LRC 75-2005). Dublin: Law Reform Commission.
  • O'Donnell, I. & Healy, D. (2008) "Calling time on crime: Motivation, generativity and agency in Irish probationers" Probation Journal, 55: 25-38.
  • Mair, G. (1997) Evaluating the Effectiveness of Community Penalties. Aldershot: Avebury.
  • O'Malley, T. (1993) "Community-Based Sentences and Social Control", Irish Law Times, 12/9, 201-204
  • Raynor, P. & Vanstone, M. (2002) Understanding Community Penalties: Probation, Policy and Social Change. Buckingham: Open University Press
  • Rex, S. (2005) Reforming Community Penalties. Portland: Willian.
  • Seymour, M. & Costello, L. (2005) A Study of the Number, Profile and Progression Routes of Homeless Persons Before the Court and In Custody In Dublin. Dublin: Probation and Welfare Service
  • Seymour, M. (2006) Alternatives to Custody in Ireland. Dublin: Business in the Community and the Irish Penal Reform Trust
  • United Nations (1985) United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) Adopted by General Assembly resolution 40/33of 29 November 1985
  • United Nations (1990) United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (The Riyadh Guidelines) Adopted and proclaimed by General Assembly resolution 45/112 of 14 December 1990
  • United Nations. (1990) Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (The Tokyo Rules) 68th plenary meeting 14 December 1990.
  • United Nations. (2000) Basic Principles on the Use of Restorative Justice Programmes in Criminal Matters. The Economic and Social Council 2000.
  • Vaughan, B. (2001) Towards a model penal system, Dublin: Irish Penal Reform Trust
  • Vaughan, B. (2000) "Breaking Out of Jail: Generating Non-Custodial Penalties for Juveniles", Irish Criminal Law Journal, 10/3, 14-18
  • Walsh, D. & Sexton, P. (1999) An Empirical Study of Community Service Orders in Ireland, Dublin: Stationery Office


  • Comptroller and Auditor General (2004) The Probation and Welfare Service. Report on Value for Money Examination, Dublin: Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform
  • Nenagh Community Reparation Project. (2004) Evaluation 2004. Nenagh: NCRP.
  • Roberts, C.H. (2005) Strategic Review of Bridge Project: An Independent Report. Oxford: Centre for Criminology.


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